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B.S., Mathematics, University of Minnesota, 1975
M.S., Electrical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1983
Ph.D., Electrical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1987
M.B.A., University of St. Thomas, 1990
Primary research interest is electrical stimulation for therapeutic and defense purposes. In the area of cardiac stimulation we have developed “medium voltage therapy” which refers to the use of voltages between those of pacemakers (low-voltage therapy) and defibrillators (high-voltage therapy). For defibrillators the focus has been on more efficient waveforms and also on lower pain waveforms. Also working on electrical therapies for both cancerous and benign tumors.
Defense work has included electrical repulsion systems to keep terrorists away from ships and to keep sharks away from beaches. A major area of defense research is with electrical weapons such as the TASER® conducted electrical weapons. The overriding goal with electrical weapons is to maximize effectiveness while minimizing the risk of electrocution.
"Papers and patents are an obvious way of contributing to biomedical science. However, I get my greatest satisfaction when the science helps a fellow human being. Hence, I spend a lot of my time sharing the science with practicing physicians so that it eventually gets to the patient. Papers, patents, and patients are the 3 legs of the stool!"